Transportation and logistics is what Kyle Trayner, founder of KLT Industries, Ayer, Mass., says he knows best. During the past 10 years, KLT has emerged as a high-volume regional recycler of old corrugated containers (OCC) and other grades of fiber, and Trayner says knowing how to efficiently collect and move material has been a key factor in the company’s success.
Preparing materials for efficient shipment includes baling as a critical step, and KLT has recently invested to upgrade its ability to produce dense bales in a quick cycle time.
In September 2012, KLT personnel worked with Balemaster, Crown Point, Ind., on the installation of a Fat Boy baler, a Balemaster model that can draw on three motors with a combined 225 horsepower to produce up to 35 tons per hour of baled OCC.
Trayner has been involved in the recycling industry in New England for several decades, but he says his initial perspective was gained in the trucking industry.
“I grew up in the trucking and logistical side—my family was in over-the-road (OTR) trucking,” says Trayner. “I left the family business at an early age,” he continues. “We had hauled a lot of scrap paper, so when I left I worked at a baling facility that I had been familiar with. Eventually I moved into brokerage and was one of the partners of KC International, until we sold that company to KTI [in the late 1990s].”
KTI Inc., formerly headquartered in Guttenberg, N.J., was an operator of numerous recycling facilities that eventually merged into Casella Waste Systems.
Not long after selling off KC International, Trayner says he was ready for his next venture. “I founded KLT in 2002 to get back into business,” he comments. Trayner turned back to the freight and logistics knowledge he gained in his youth by focusing on for-hire trucking. However, recycling soon crept back into the picture.
“One of the paper mills I was dealing with urged me to buy some trucks to both haul in scrap paper and haul out finished paper,” he says.
KLT started doing that as well as buying materials for other paper mills in New England. “In the later 2000s we shifted the focus of the business away from for-hire trucking,” says Trayner. “And then instead of brokering we focused on locating our own facilities and placing balers in warehouses.”
For a time, Trayner says KLT worked in cooperation with GP Harmon and brought flatbed trucks equipped with Moffat forklifts to industrial locations to collect fiber. “As that moved on, a lot of our customers wanted compactors as well. So the next thing you know, we had our own roll-off trucks, our own baling facilities and our own font-end trucks.”
Trayner says KLT Industries has worked in cooperation with paper mills in New England to help them secure supply in a very competitive recovered fiber market. “A lot of the mills I’ve dealt with, as they see their fiber supply being crucial, we’ve gone further down the food chain for our mills to help them be supplied.”
As of 2012, KLT refers to itself on its website (www.kltindustries.com) as “a recognized leader in commercial paper and plastic recycling.” The company’s fleet of trucks picks up some 10,000 tons per month of recyclable material. “Our growth has been phenomenal over the past few years,” says Trayner. “We just keep going forward.”
Much of that material moves through KLT’s plant in Ayer or one of its other two facilities in Putnam, Conn., and Chepachet, R.I. The Ayer plant is the largest and was the perfect candidate for a new high-volume baler.
Trayner cites several reasons why the time was right for KLT to purchase its Fat Boy baler from Balemaster, with many of those reasons tying into shipping and material handling efficiency.
“Some of our domestic mill customers have spec’ed out super lightweight trucks to be able to haul 50,000 or 52,000 pounds of rollstock,” says Trayner. “With the Fat Boy, instead of loading 38 to 42 bales, we can do that with less than 14 bales on the truck. That’s the beauty.”
Loading and unloading 14 bales instead of 40 results in a much faster material handling process, notes Trayner. “I’ve run those forklifts myself and loaded and unloaded. When you have 48 bales, there is a time element there.”
In addition to the time- and labor-saving elements of loading fewer bales, Trayner says he won’t miss the challenge of fitting 40-plus bales into a truck. “Loading a truck with the lighter bales is like playing Jenga,” he says.
Some materials collected and processed by KTL go to export markets, and the Fat Boy will offer advantages on this front as well, says Trayner. “With the baler we have now, we struggle to get 49,000 pounds of material into containers. Now, we can negotiate knowing that hitting 57,000 to 59,000 pounds is not an issue,” he comments.
Producing fewer, heavier bales will lead to other cost advantages, says Trayner. “We also can use less baling wire and a less expensive type of baling wire. When we need to store extra tons for a while, these bales take up a tremendously smaller amount of floor space, or footprint, in our warehouse.”
Another operational advantage of the Fat Boy cited by Trayner is its large charge box. “We do a lot of reprocessing of bales from retailers and also bale Gaylord boxes,” he comments. “In a lot of two-ram models this material can cause bridge jams. When you look at the 58-inch-wide-by-43-inch-tall bale and the big charge box, this baler will swallow almost anything.”
While high-volume production is a key reason KLT selected a Fat Boy model, Trayner says the machine has been designed to adjust to whatever work load it is asked to handle on a given day.
“It’s a 225-horsepower machine but it has three 75-horsepower motors. That gives us flexibility. We can run on one motor or two or kick in the third motor and do more than 35 tons per hour of cardboard when we need to,” he comments. “The operational flexibility of that is tremendous. It’s like stepping on the accelerator on the highway.”
The baler the Fat Boy is replacing is an older model that has been in many years of solid service, but was only capable of baling seven or eight tons per hour of OCC, says Trayner.
In addition to varying the machine’s power usage, Trayner says KLT also will deploy the Fat Boy flexibly in terms of the materials it will compress on a weekly basis. “We handle sorted office paper, mixed paper, material from community collection programs and schools, plus stretch wrap and other grades of plastic from industrial generators. Everything is going to go through the Fat Boy. It can handle everything we throw at it,” he says.
At the plant in Ayer, the baler will be fed by a 20-foot long pit conveyor made by Hustler Conveyor, O’Fallon, Mo. “Everything is tipped indoors,” says Trayner. “We have multiple tipping pits for different grades. Those pits can be fed at different times to the Fat Boy.”
Finished bales are either stored in the 15,000-square-foot warehouse area or are hauled by lift truck directly to trailers waiting at one of 10 loading docks. With his freight and logistics background, Trayner makes sure KLT facilities are transportation-friendly. “You can never have too many loading docks,” he states.
Currently, the plant in Ayer handles considerably more material than the plants in Connecticut and Rhode Island. But Trayner does not preclude the possibility that additional Fat Boys will one day be installed there. “Part of our strategy is to put up baling facilities near heavily populated areas of New England. In the next 24 months, that could mean two or three new facilities.”
Trayner is not saying such growth will be easy, but he can look back with pride at what he and his colleagues have accomplished in their first decade. “The volume it takes to feed a baler this size is considerable, but we approach everything we do with an open mind,” says Trayner, adding that KLT Industries has quickly grown to “have a fleet of trucks that rivals most trucking companies in our area.”
He adds, “Our other facilities are candidates in the future for Fat Boys, just due to the efficiency of the machine. The time needed per baled ton will be cut drastically,” Trayner continues. “That creates labor savings and energy savings. The Fat Boy also is going to allow us to bring a lot more tons into our Ayer facility and have the capacity to process those tons.”
The September installation of the Fat Boy is just in time for a peak season, adds Trayner. “With the retail-related work we do, we run 24/7 through the end of January. It’ll be nice knowing we have the processing capacity.”
In the long term, says Trayner, the added baling capacity is “really going to position us to help with the overall expansion of KLT Industries. As our full-time salespeople sourcing for the facility go out and negotiate with large generators, we’re going to have that Fat Boy advantage on our side.”
The author is editorial director and associate publisher of Recycling Today and can be contacted at email@example.com.
When shopping for new commercial collection vehicles, recyclers’ primary concerns are with shaving operating costs, improving fuel efficiency and ensuring reliable service.
“The single largest technology that has everyone’s attention in the recycling and refuse business is natural-gas-powered collection trucks,” says Curtis Dorwart, vocational products marketing manager for Greensboro, N.C.-based Mack Trucks. “Although the initial costs of startup and acquisition are higher, the fuel savings as a result of the technology can pencil out in a positive way in a fairly short period of time.” (See “Fill ’er Up” in the August 2012 issue of Recycling Today for more information on the benefits of compressed-natural-gas [CNG] fuel.).
“Reduction in fuel costs is a big theme these days,” agrees Ken Beaver, director of the Innovation Environmental Solutions group for Heil, headquartered in Chattanooga, Tenn. For many manufacturers, that means lighter vehicles and moving from diesel to CNG fuel.
A typical truck will consume about $30,000 per year in diesel fuel at today’s prices, Beaver figures. “CNG costs less than half that amount, even with the capital cost of a fueling station included.”
Natural gas also is a domestic fuel and burns 20 percent cleaner than diesel, increasing its attractiveness.
“If the hauler can utilize bio-methane, that reduces the carbon footprint by 90 percent compared to diesel,” Beaver adds.
With increasing source separation of organic and food waste, there is the opportunity to convert this waste to bio-methane, which can be used to power refuse collection vehicles.
Heil partners with Zero Waste Energy, Lafayette, Calif., to help haulers with conversion of organic waste to bio-methane, using its anaerobic digestion process with equipment manufactured by Heil’s sister company Marathon Equipment Co., Vernon, Ala.
The company also claims the broadest CNG offering in the industry, with in-house design and manufacturing and full after-market training and support.
Who is buying?
Local municipal sanitation departments are rapidly giving way to commercial recyclers when it comes to buying collection vehicles these days. Private haulers are already doing the majority of commercial and industrial collection, as most municipalities focus on residential collection.
“We expect this trend to continue, as municipalities continue to struggle with budgets and in some cases choose to privatize even their residential collection,” says Ken Beaver, director of the Innovation Environmental Solutions group for Heil, headquartered in Chattanooga, Tenn.
“It is a mixed bag of sorts,” says Curtis Dorwart, vocational products marketing manager for Greensboro, N.C.-based Mack Trucks. He says he finds municipal departments, outside of certain grants and incentives, are cash strapped these days. Likewise, commercial recyclers are keeping a close eye on all of their business activities.
Kevin Steinke, marketing manager with the Curotto-Can, Inc., Santa Rosa, Calif., says he sees buying interest from both municipalities and private haulers. “Municipalities want to reduce costs and increase flexibility,” he says. “The same is true for commercial haulers.”
“At the end of the day I would say that commercial recyclers are buying more, driven by business opportunity surrounding recovering recyclables out of the waste stream,” Dorwart says.
Beaver says haulers also should ask their manufacturers’ representatives how to specify the front loader to the application and particular waste stream. “The composition of the recycling waste stream can vary, and the materials and quantities that will be collected can have an effect on the performance and maintenance of the equipment,” he notes.
Vehicles that offer large collection capacities can enable haulers to save money by making fewer trips, says Kevin Steinke, marketing manager with Curotto-Can Inc., Santa Rosa, Calif. “On average, ASLs (automated side loaders) have about 30 cubic yards total capacity,” he says. “By comparison, front loaders have a 12-cubic-yard hopper and a 28- to 31-cubic-yard body. This translates to higher route capacity, serving more locations per route—especially on single-stream routes. An additional benefit, Steinke says, is lower operating costs.
St. Nicolas, Quebec, Canada-based Labrie Enviroquip Group’s Wittke line claims the smoothest arm lift in the business, which Luc Bourassa, rear and front loaders product manager at Labrie, says enables buyers to save money on operating costs. Because a complete cycle takes only 12 to 14 seconds, the truck gains about 20 minutes more on-the-street productivity each day, he adds.
Bourassa says Labrie’s DuraScope cylinders are designed to decrease maintenance costs by 4 percent. While some of the numbers might seem small—20 minutes per day or 4 percentage points—it all adds up to lower operating expenses.
Selecting the right truck for a company begins with a needs assessment, according to suppliers.
“Be sure to really understand what you want to do with the truck. Know how much weight, the terrain, how long you want to keep it, stops per day and so on,” Dorwart says. “It is really important to get the best in productivity and uptime when spec’ing.”
Steinke says productivity is a key metric for any collection truck buyer as are overall operating costs.
That brings up the major issue of post-purchase support for any unit.
Service and Support
After-market service and support is critical for any hauler. As the miles and hours ramp up on a machine, the true operating costs come through.
“Don’t forget about warranty, service and the need to have a solid support network for your truck,” Dorwart says. “The last thing you want to be worried about is what happens if you have a problem. You want to know that someone has your back,” he adds.
“Pay attention to warranty programs and the manufacturer’s reputation for honoring that warranty,” Beaver suggests, adding that Heil’s nationwide network of dealers and in-depth series of technical training programs can ensure that the hauler will receive all the support required to maximize the use of that asset throughout its usable life.
“In this day and age, it is important to recognize the financial stability of the RCV (refuse collection vehicle) manufacturer,” Beaver continues. “Many have been significantly weakened by the latest economic downturn and have cut back on essential support services.”
Manufacturers claim a number of features designed to improve collection efficiency and vehicle life.
Labrie’s Wittke StarLight has a 10,000-pound lifting capacity and a 14-second lifting cycle. With Hardox 450 steel bodies, a recycler is getting a product that is five times as abrasion resistant as typical mild steel, the company says.
Bourassa says the tailgates on Labrie’s Wittke front loaders close straight down and lock without friction. This is designed to reduce wear and to improve tailgate seal life, he says.
The company’s Digiload also allows recyclers to record payload weight at each customer pickup site with 98 percent accuracy, according to Labrie.
In addition to Labrie’s Duroscope cylinders, which are designed to decrease maintenance costs by 4 percent, high-flow hydraulics contribute to fast and smooth lift capacity.
Steinke says Curotto-Can’s Slammin’ Eagle AFL was introduced in 2009 and requires just four to five seconds from wheel-stop to wheel-go. It is designed to deliver good maneuverability, making it 25 percent faster in areas like cul de sacs, Steinke says.
The Slammin’ Eagle also features a hopper that is about four times larger than some competing units, making it capable of taking the large bulk loads and bulk material that commercial accounts often set out. While it loads bulk material like a rear loader, it also can be used as a commercial front loader. Curotto-Can AFLs also can be used on routes for residential garbage, single-stream recycling, green waste, food waste as well as “take-all” routes where the operator needs to pick up bulk items, such as furniture and appliances, Steinke says.
Heil’s newest commercial collection truck is known as the Half/Pack Freedom. It is a front-end-loader (FEL) that weighs about 4,000 pounds less than a typical traditional heavy-duty FEL, according to the company.
“By utilizing sophisticated computer modeling as well as extensive testing both in the lab and in the field, we were able to achieve this weight reduction while retaining the full durability and longevity of the body,” says Heil’s Nate Davis, product manager for the company’s FEL product line. “Coupled with our patent-pending HOPS (Heil Overload Protection System) to ensure the body is never over-packed, the Freedom provides the largest legal payload in the industry,” he says.
According to Heil, its engineers estimate that the Freedom can save $7,000 per year in operating costs because of reduced fuel consumption and tire and brake wear in addition to higher productivity.
“It’s all about being productive and comfortable,” Mack’s Dorwart says.
The company’s TerraPro Low Entry model offers a variety of driving positions, including right hand stand up, which work well for curbside recycling.
“TerraPro Low Entry, as the name implies, has low step height, helping to make those trips in and out of the cab less tiring to the operator,” Dorwart says.
A drop-frame version of the TerraPro Low Entry allows a recycling body to be mounted closer to ground level to further improve working ergonomics.
The TerraPro Cabover model has a 9-liter, 320-horsepower Cummins Westport ISL G engine that can use either CNG or liquefied natural gas (LNG).
The truck can be equipped with air disc brakes designed to optimize the balance between the friction material and the rotor material, providing improved stopping distance and handling. According to Mack, air disc brakes are easier to service and the friction material has been designed to last twice as long as the material in S-cam drum brakes.
The author is a freelance writer based in Cleveland and can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
(Comments about production figures made by Stan Lancey of the American Forest & Paper Association [AF&PA] should have been on capacity figures. The AF&PA does not forecast production figures.)
A number of North American paper producers are struggling with declining demand for their products in response to falling newspaper and magazine circulation and sluggish consumer spending.
The newsprint sector faces numerous structural problems that are putting pressure on newsprint producers in North America, resulting in mill shutdowns and bankruptcy protection filings. Some newsprint mills have even retooled to be able to produce other paper grades.
The printing and writing sector also has seen downward pressure, as sales of print magazines and office paper decline.
The corrugated container industry, the largest sector of the U.S. paper industry, also has been buffeted by the sluggish domestic and global economies. Overall demand for linerboard and corrugated medium, which are used for packaging and transporting numerous consumer goods, won’t rebound significantly until the global economy starts to improve.
A recent report from Standard & Poor’s (S&P) points to sluggish economic growth as the primary reason behind the rating service’s neutral outlook regarding demand for containerboard, corrugated products and boxboard. S&P adds that the lack of significant additional supply in the United States should keep markets for paper-based packaging producers balanced and support its neutral outlook for pricing across this segment.
Extending its focus, S&P predicts stability for the paper and forest products industry. According to the company, meaningful capacity additions in North America are likely to be limited to tissue papers, where there is growing demand, fueled largely by population growth. Companies such as Clearwater Paper Corp., Spokane, Wash., and Georgia-Pacific LLC, Atlanta, are expanding.
However, S&P’s outlook for printing and writing paper demand remains unfavorable given the increasing consumer shift away from paper to electronic media. S&P predicts this sector will see demand decline by mid-single-digit percentages during the next year. Printing and writing paper capacity shutdowns have largely kept pace with declining demand, while lower input costs (i.e., pulp and energy) have stalled efforts to raise finished paper prices. The result, according to S&P, is a slightly unfavorable outlook for printing and writing papers for the next 12 months.
Outside the U.S.
Stan Lancey, an economist with the American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA), Washington, D.C., says the export market offers opportunities for some paper and board producers.
“Worldwide demand is growing at 2 to 3 percent per year,” he says. And while the U.S. paper industry traditionally has been an importer of finished paper products, Lancey says the domestic paper industry has reached “an inflection point” and is now exporting more finished product than it is importing. This situation should help offset some domestic decline.
An increase in demand from countries outside of North America could help to consume a fair amount of U.S. production, Lancey adds.
While the different sectors of the paper industry must contend with many of the same macro-economic issues, each of the four key sectors also is grappling with its own unique issues.
Lancey reports that total paper and paperboard production reached close to 90 million tons in 2011. That figure, he adds, likely will decline to 88.7 million tons in 2012. Going further, paper and board capacity will show modest incremental increases in the next two years, with 2013’s capacity total reaching 89.3 million tons and 2014’s figure possibly reaching 89.7million tons.
In the News
The North American newsprint industry appears to be in the midst of structural changes that likely will result in a different and smaller sector over the next several years. The problems with the newsprint industry are not limited to North America, however. Newsprint producers throughout Western Europe also are confronting sharply reduced demand for their finished product.
A recent report by Boston-based RISI, an information provider for the global forest products industry, notes that demand declines in North America and Western Europe and slower growth in many developing countries will result in the removal of an additional 3.5 to 4.4 million metric tons of newsprint capacity throughout the world.
The RISI report, titled “Global Newsprint Risk of Closure,” notes that newsprint demand declined by 3.7 percent in 2011. However, RISI says it expects to see an increase in global newsprint demand as the global economy strengthens.
EPR and the Paper Industry
Despite the challenges facing the domestic paper industry, Cathy Foley, sector vice president for the Washington, D.C.-based American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA), says the industry is striving to reach a 70 percent recycling rate by 2020, a figure the industry is rapidly closing in on. Foley says the rate is currently at 66.8 percent. Even more impressive, she says, is the containerboard recovery rate, which is greater than 90 percent.
However, the quality of the recovered material is a concern for consuming mills, Foley says. To remedy this, she says the AF&PA is working to educate communities in areas such as collection practices.
Another issue confronting the domestic paper industry is extended producer responsibility (EPR) legislation. Foley says a number of states are considering EPR for post-consumer packaging. “We are not saying that we don’t have responsibility, but don’t lump us in with other commodities,” she says.
She adds that the paper industry has had great success in recycling without the need for state legislators dictating policy.
The decline in newsprint demand is forcing significant changes among producers in North America. Canada-based Catalyst Paper filed for Chapter 15 bankruptcy protection in January of this year. (Under U.S. bankruptcy laws, Chapter 15 grants a foreign company protection from creditors with a claim on its assets in the country.) The company was scheduled to close its recycled newsprint mill in Snowflake, Ariz., Sept. 30 because of flagging demand for its finished product, raw material price volatility and escalating freight costs.
Greenwich, Conn.-based SP Newsprint filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in November 2011. SP Newsprint Holdings LLC completed the sale of the business to SP Fiber Technologies LLC (SPFT) Sept. 10, 2012.
Following the acquisition of SP Newsprint, Jay Guarandiano, the newly appointed president and CEO of the company, released a statement that reads, “While newsprint will remain the foundation of the business for the foreseeable future, the company is looking forward to aggressively developing an innovative value-added packaging component to service the paperboard, containerboard and converting marketplaces.”
SP Newsprint’s Chapter 11 reorganization was converted to a liquidation under Chapter 7 of U.S. bankruptcy law shortly after the company’s sale to SPFT.
Montreal-based Resolute Paper, formerly AbitibiBowater, the largest newsprint producer in North America, also has been shedding capacity during the past several years as it seeks to balance supply with demand. The company indefinitely closed its newsprint mill in Nova Scotia, Canada, this summer. The idling is expected to reduce capacity by 250,000 metric tons.
Paper recyclers have been affected by the problems in the newsprint sector on both the collection and sales side. For material recovery facility (MRF) operators, a steady decline in newspaper circulation has resulted in fewer old newspapers (ONP) available for recovery at their facilities. While many MRFs were designed to handle large amounts of ONP, the sharp decline in the actual volume of material has forced some to adjust their operations.
On the sales side, fewer end markets for collected material have led to shifts in ONP grades. As well, more recyclers are opting to commingle ONP with other bulk grades, such as mixed paper and even old corrugated containers (OCC), creating a broader, less consistent grade of fiber, according to sources. As well, even less clean deinked news is available for users who require that grade.
Another consuming sector that has felt the impact of lower-quality ONP has been the building products industry, which often relies on clean, dry ONP for its furnish.
Put it in Writing
The printing and writing (P&W) paper sector also has seen its share of challenges over the past several years. Many of the largest P&W producers have been cutting production and closing mills as they seek to balance supply with demand. Declining demand for P&W products largely results from a decline in magazine production. Figures from the Magazine Publishers of America show that the annual combined paid and verified average circulation per issue of magazines has fallen to levels last seen in 1980.
Miamisburg, Ohio-based NewPage, one of the largest producers of printing and writing paper in the United States, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in the middle of August 2012. The filing follows the company’s failure to put together a merger with Memphis, Tenn.-based Verso Paper Corp., another large printing paper producer, which recently permanently closed its Sartell, Minn., mill because of fire.
For paper recyclers, a steady decline in generation of higher grades of office paper has increased competition for material. As of early fall, the market for high grades has been slumping, though many sources say it is nearing bottom. These recyclers forecast strong demand for office-generated paper not only from printing and writing mills but also from tissue mills and other end markets.
The tissue sector is a bright spot for the North American paper industry. Figures from the AF&PA show 2011’s tissue production at slightly more than 8.6 million tons. Going forward, the AF&PA sees modest growth for this sector.
Producers of P&W papers and newsprint, however, clearly face challenges ahead as they struggle with declining demand for their products.
The author is senior editor of Recycling Today and can be contacted at email@example.com.
Plastic bag bans are topical again, as one U.S. governor vetoes a bill that would have prohibited municipalities from enacting their own recycling programs, fees or bans on plastic bags; the Ontario Convenience Store Association threatens to sue over Toronto’s ban; and a judge upholds San Francisco’s ordinance banning the use of plastic bags by most retailers.
Illinois Gov. Pat Quinn has vetoed a bill that sought to establish a statewide recycling program for plastic bags. Quinn says the law would have removed the right of home-rule communities to implement innovative solutions to the plastic bag litter problem and is more restrictive than similar bans.
The governor says he will work with communities, businesses and advocates to pass a better bill in the next legislative session to increase recycling.
Senate Bill 3442, also known as the “plastic bag” bill, would have required manufacturers to register with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency and to stamp a number on each plastic bag. The bill would have outlawed the purchase of plastic bags from nonregistered manufacturers and prohibited municipalities from enacting their own recycling programs, fees or bans on plastic bags.
The Illinois Municipal League and 150 municipalities that saw the bill as an undermining of home rule opposed the measure. Under the 1970 Illinois Constitution, home rule enables municipalities to exercise greater control over local problems. Illinois currently has 209 home-rule units whose authority would have been weakened by this bill.
According to a report from CBC News, if the Toronto City Council does not reverse its ban on plastic bags, affected industries are promising legal action.
A motion to reopen the vote on the council’s original decision was scheduled for early October.
Earlier this year, Toronto Mayor Rob Ford had entered a motion to get rid of the 5-cent fee on plastic bags, which was implemented three years ago, according to the CBC News report. After the city council passed the motion, the fee was removed July 1.
However, council then voted 24-20 in support of a motion to ban plastic bags altogether starting Jan. 1, 2013, CBC News notes.
In San Francisco, the ordinance that bans most retail locations in the city from distributing plastic bags and mandates retailers charge customers 10 cents per paper or compostable plastic bag has received the go-ahead in the form of a ruling by Superior Court Judge Teri Jackson.
The Save The Plastic Bag Coalition argued that the city did not fully study the effects of the ordinance before it was passed by the San Francisco Board of Supervisors and signed by Mayor Ed Lee earlier this year, according to a report in the San Francisco Chronicle.
The new ordinance expands the 2007 San Francisco law banning noncompostable plastic bags at large supermarkets and pharmacies. It went into effect Oct. 1 and extends to restaurants in the summer of 2013.
(Additional information about secondary plastics, including breaking news and consuming industry reports, is available at www.RecyclingToday.com.)
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