Bring it On

As the number of obsolete computers rises, manufacturers race to keep up with disposal/recycling challenges.

March 30, 2001
Melissa Goodrich
Municipal / IC&I Electronics

In the computer world, speed and power are everything. And gains on those attributes continue to grow as new products head to the market. And with each technological advance comes another piece of equipment that no longer has a use-creating a mounting problem for solid waste managers.

And thus comes the argument of who is responsible for these heaps of circuit boards, monitors and other materials, some of which are toxic and not welcome at landfills. With many municipal electronics collection programs losing money, or at best breaking even, no one wants to claim financial responsibility for what may soon become everyone’s problem.

The National Recycling Coalition (NRC), Alexandria, Va., estimates 500 million PCs will be obsolete by 2007. About 200 million computers were taken out of action in 1998 alone. Of those units, about 10% were recycled. While there are 400 or more electronics recyclers in the U.S., matching up machines with the appropriate recyclers can be quite a challenge. And convincing consumers to pay to have their old machine recycled is another challenge.

In response to this growing number of outdated computers, several original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have implemented programs to encourage recycling. These programs vary in structure depending on the OEM, with some having mail-back programs for units and others partnering with local waste haulers and electronics recyclers.

Monitoring the Problem

    While there is no current legislation mandating the recycling of electronics, several states have adopted bans on the disposal of products such as televisions and computer monitors in landfills.

    Massachusetts is the first state to have implemented a statewide ban on computer screens, television sets and other glass picture tubes in landfills and incinerators. This new regulation means that neither businesses nor individuals can dispose of these materials in the trash. Six collection sites are now being set up to take these items, with cities and towns taking on the burden of transporting the materials to these sites. The items will then be refurbished or recycled.

    Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) are the focus of the new regulations. The average CRT contains five to eight pounds of lead, the substance the state is trying to keep out of the landfill with the change. Computer circuit boards also contain toxic materials as well.

    Colorado is following the likes of Massachusetts and Minnesota in attempting to create a solution for the growing electronics stockpiles by addressing the disposal of monitors. House Bill 1106 would create a recycling account that would be used for the disposal of cathode ray tubes (CRTs) in computer monitors and televisions. It would also pay for education and promotion of this program. Passage of the bill would most likely:

    Establish a CRT recycling pilot program to encourage private industry to research development of new technologies for recycling and the handing of CRTs.

    A fund will be created to develop public education materials

    Accept grants or loans from any source and deposit the money into a private account

    Make grants or loans available to private industry and public-private partnerships for location or expansion of research and development projects

    Use funds from the general fund in an amount equal to the department’s direct and indirect administrative costs for the particular program.

From the Inside Out

Several computer manufacturers have internal computer recycling programs in place to handle portions of the obsolete leased and purchased computer stream, as well as equipment used internally and considered obsolete. Hewlett Packard Co. (HP), Roseville, Calif., had enough obsolete units within HP itself that it began a joint venture with Noranda Inc., Toronto, Ontario. In 1996, HP and Micro Metallics, a company acquired by Noranda in 1984, formed a joint venture to step up HP’s asset recovery and recycling program. The agreement prompted the construction of the Metal Separation Plant, Roseville, Calif., which is used to process HP equipment.

When HP first looked to expand the recycling of its units, it found no ready solution and decided to form the venture with Noranda. The feedstock for the facility is acquired internally from HP and some large take-back programs with customers. Units arrive, are assessed and evaluated, and the unit is stripped of usable parts. The remainder is fed to a granulator and are separated into plastics, and metals streams, says Mary Jo Rogers, public affairs officer for HP.

About 90% of what the facility processes is HP product and the company is also looking to expand that portion of their business. Rogers says she expects HP to make an announcement concerning recycling in the near future. About 3.5 million pounds of materials are processed at the Roseville plant.

Dell Computer Corp., Austin, Texas, also has a similar take-back program, aimed at its leasing customers and other large companies that may have Dell units. Dell Financial Services handles the asset recovery for customers and the viability of the units determines how they are recycled, says Laura Thomas, senior communications analyst.

“The company is targeting the larger portion of PCs out there,” she says. Customers are provided documentation about the recycling of their computers as well, Thomas notes.

A Small Problem Grows

Electronics recycling by OEMs can trace its roots to an internal program for Sony Electronics Inc., headquartered in New York City, in the early 1990s, and has grown to include post-consumer materials as well. At that time, the company was trying to deal with electronics products found to be defective during the manufacturing process, says Mark Small, vice president of Environmental Safety and Health.

“We make three million picture tubes a year,” the San Diego-based Small says, “and even if you look at a 1% defective rate that would leave us with 30,000 pieces that do not meet our quality standards. Our initial focus was, how do we deal with that material.”

In response to that need, Small says Sony developed relationships with electronics recyclers to take the materials. And once the handling of materials from the manufacturing of equipment was in place, Small says Sony then moved on to tackling post-consumer material, which proved to be harder than handling its own units. “This first phase was pretty easy, we knew what was in it and there wasn’t a variety of products.”

“The recycling business is not one we want to be in,” Small says. “We did realize early on that high tech companies are not good at recycling. We tend to over-engineer things and recycling is labor intensive. We were dealing with something with a pretty low value as well.”

Small says Sony realized early on they were not equipped to handle the actual product recycling, and other companies had tried to venture into that niche and had failed. Instead, Sony decided to rely on the already existing recycling infrastructure to handle post-consumer products. “We developed a lot of things with the recyclers and our goal is not to make a profit, but to develop recycling.”

Bridging the Gaps

    The fragmented structure of the electronics recycling industry has prompted Massachusetts to devote money and personnel to launch the Product Stewardship Institute at the University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Mass. The state has devoted $150,000 to the institute and about 100 government officials met to discuss strategies for voluntary agreements with manufactures of electronics and products containing mercury, paint, carpet and pesticides. These materials were chosen because of their high toxicity levels.

    Created in December 2000, the Product Stewardship Institute is a voluntary group hoping to facilitate dialog, says institute director Scott Cassel. "It is a national organization that is set up to develop voluntary, negotiated agreements with the industry to reduce the health and environmental impacts from consumer products. The institute is coordinating with state and local governments from around the county and other stakeholders."

    Cassel says the institute is a way to bring the parties dealing with electronics disposal together and to try to get something done. "It’s a way to coordinate the state and local interests and to bring the concerns of the state and local government to industry ... and to ask them to sit down and discuss some of the waste management problems that are created by their products."

    He says that in no way is the institute meant to put manufacturers on the defensive. "It’s not intended to be adversarial, and instead is intended to develop some voluntary negotiated agreements that would be in lieu of regulatory action. These agencies do have the ability and even the interest in moving forward with command and control approaches. But it is an opportunity to enter into agreements which will work for all stakeholders and still have the flexibility and innovation that often comes out side of the regulatory process."

    Some of the main goals of the group are to develop principals on product stewardship and to set a basic understanding for what that is. The other goal is to set a national electronics product stewardship initiative, he says. That is already underway. "That is definitely the top issue and because of that the institute was asked to coordinate state and local governments around the country and is working with the center for Clean Products and Clean Technologies at the University of Tennessee to coordinate larger stakeholder meetings. They will more formally invite the industry to participate in the dialog and hope something can take place in the next few months."

    One of the main reasons a national group was started was to prevent there being a different structure and organization in each state and therefore making it more difficult to recycle electronics because of varying state regulations and rules, Cassel says. "One of the reasons for doing this nationally is for greater efficiency and effectiveness. No industry wants to see 50 states with 50 different regulatory frameworks for electronics, or any other product."

Partnering for a Solution

The task then became finding an economical way of facilitating electronics recycling on a mass scale. A partnership was formed between Sony Electronics Inc.; The Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance, St. Paul, Minn.; Waste Management Inc. (WM), Houston; Panasonic-Matsushita and the American Plastics Council (APC) for a three month pilot program. The program collected about 600 tons of used Sony brand electronics at three sites owned by WM.

“Our goal with the Minnesota project was to use the existing infrastructure to get our program going and then have the manufacturers focus on what we do best,” Small says. “What we can contribute is to design the material so that there is more recycling and more recyclable components. Out goal over the next five years is to have a more sustainable recycling industry.”

He says for every pound of electronics equipment recycled by Sony, it costs the company about eight cents. “What Sony is doing now, in Minnesota, and what we plan to do in all 50 states, is subsidize the cost.”

Currently the Sony-Minnesota project is only for Sony products, and is free for consumers. The area was a natural place to begin the pilot for the program because household curbside collection programs were already in place. Small says Sony’s goal is to have eight more states with programs like the Sony-Minnesota project in place by the end of the year. “We are pretty confident we will hit that and what we need to do is get other manufacturers involved.”

Small says Sony realizes the stakes are high for the success of this program. If OEMs can not make a go of programs like theirs, the government could step in, which could result in added taxes. “Again, it will fall back into the consumer’s lap. If this material has value and if people want this, the collection rate can go up. A lot of things for the environment make business sense,” he says. The responsibility for electronics recycling could be a shared responsibility between retailers, government and the consumer, he says.

Taking Charge

While the U.S. is still trying to determine the most efficient way to collect used consumer electronics, legislation in Europe will mandate mandatory product-take back by OEMs, says Lauren Roman, president of Industrial Recycling Services, Flanders, N.J. Directives proposed and approved by the European Union (EU) set new standards for sales of electronics equipment in Europe, even if manufactured in the U.S. or Asia.

One directive originally called the Waste From Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) requires companies to recycle their computers and IT equipment when it reaches its useful life. The second phase of the directive would phase out the use of lead and other harmful substances that are exported to Europe. The compliance deadline would be 2008.

U.S. manufacturers export about $6 billion worth of consumer electronics to Europe each year and would be greatly affected by this change. Currently, Roman says, manufacturers, disposal companies and EU officials are trying to determine how they will abide by this new ruling. Some of the debate lies in a proposed mandatory fee included in the purchase price to pay for recycling. But, Roman says, the problem then becomes what if one company can manufacture a unit that costs $5 to demanufacture but the mandatory fee is $10? Manufacturers are arguing if they can make a product that costs less to demanufacture, then they should be rewarded by being able to offer their customers a discounted fee.

Overall, U.S. companies seem slower to respond to the electronics recycling issue in general than those in Europe. “The best advice I can give to the OEM,” Roman says, “is to do it [electronics recycling] before you have to do it so you can make the decisions as to how it is going to work for your company.”

Consumers are becoming more aware of the dangers of trashing computers, though, and she fields a fair amount of calls asking where to take computers and monitors. Roman says she refers them to the local county household waste coordinator, but handing these components over to that department comes at a cost for the county and the tax payer.

She says the most effective way to get electronics recycled would be to include an end-of-life handling fee into the cost of the original unit. Outsourcing is another key to success she says. “I think many companies realized early on that they don’t want to be in this [the recycling] business and what they should be doing is outsourcing,” Roman says. The shear volume of machines estimated to be heading for disposal has made some OEMs nervous as to how they would handle such a high quantity. Having a good relationship with several electronics recyclers would still not be enough to handle millions of units. “I think the only solution for the manufacturers is to start making alliances with the best demanufacturing companies and have them do the demanufacturing work.”

Toxic Trash

    Certain components of computers and other electronics equipment can contain chemicals and substances that are hazardous for the environment. In several areas, the disposal of monitors, which contain harmful Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs), and other components such as batteries are banned from landfills.

    Some of these components include: Computer monitors and televisions, both of which contain CRTs and lead;

    Printed circuit boards that contain metals such as lead, chromium, cadmium and mercury, a material already banned from disposal in some states.

    Batteries in electronics can also contain lead, mercury and cadmium

    Mercury-containing components are often found in electronics. PCBs may be found in televisions and computers made before the early 1980s.

    The Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance has several suggestions to reduce the amount of electronics waste to be disposed:

    Lease equipment and return older units to the vendor when upgrades are desired. Avoid techno-gadgets that may be more costly, may wear out faster and may not be much of an improvement compared to other options. Identify durable products and research durability and consumer reliability ratings before making a purchase. Repair products instead of replacing them, which could also be less expensive than purchasing a new product. Purchasing products that can be upgraded in the future will reduce the amount thrown away and prevent the need to buy a whole new product.


One electronics recycler says he has a rather skeptical view of the recycling programs many computer manufacturers are putting into place. J.D. Porter, owner of Computer Reuse & Recycling, Austin, Texas, says the segmentation of take-back programs does not help the situation, and for any program to be a success, manufacturers are going to have to partner with the competition. “The problem with individual companies doing it on an individual basis is that it doesn’t really address the problem,” he says. “If you are only going to take back a specific brand, then you put a restriction on the pipeline from the infeed scale. It may just take them going through these individual efforts, and once they get through that they may come together.”

Porter acknowledges his skepticism may be from many failed attempts at penning deals with major OEMs to take back products for recycling. “We have tried and we have had numerous efforts to try to get them [OEMs] to work together and to partner up, and they will not work together,” he says.

But, those who wait to implement programs will be the ones hurt in the long run, Porter says. It is a matter of time before possible mandatory legislation hits, and if companies are forced to come up with a solution in a bind, that will hurt them more than if they deal with the problem now. “It is something that will happen, that is not a question.” RT

The author is associate editor of Recycling Today and can be reached via e-mail at

Electronics Recyclers

    Each listing has been compiled from existing lists and research. While an

    effort has been made to verify the accuracy of this information, there is no

    guarantee, expressed or implied, that the listed information is exact.

    Inclusion in this list does not imply an endorsement by Recycling Today. If

    you would like to make changes too or be added to this list, please e-mail

    Melissa Goodrich, Associate Editor, Recycling Today, at

    5R Processors

    Catawba, Wisc.

    Aarwin Inc.

    Elmira, N.Y.

    A&B Recycling Inc.

    Fort Oglethorpe, Ga.

    Absolute Recycling

    West Haven, Conn.

    Action Computing Solutions

    Centreville, Va.

    Accu-Shred Limited

    Mississaugua, Ontario

    ACT Computer Technology Inc.

    Austin, Texas

    Adherent Technologies Inc.

    Albuquerque, N.M.

    ADS Metals

    Bellevue, Wash.


    Advanced Recovery Inc.

    Belleville, N.J.

    Advanced Recovery

    Oradell, N.J.

    Advanced Technological Solutions Inc.

    Brooklyn, N.Y.


    Flanders, N.J.

    Affordable Business Technologies Inc.

    Alexandria, Va.

    Alco Refiners

    Wheatley Heights, N.Y.

    Aleph Electronics

    San Leandro, Calif.

    Allied Computer Brokers

    Haverhill, Mass.

    Allied Electronic Recovery

    Union City, Calf.

    Alimar Technology Corp.

    Portsmouth, N.H.

    Allon Computer

    Norwalk, Conn.

    Alta Resource Management Service

    Springfield, Mass.

    All Tech Computer Recyclers

    Torrance, Calif.


    Houston, Texas

    America II ELEctronics Inc.

    St. Petersburg, Fla.

    American Recycling Co.

    Cleveland, Ohio

    Amion Metals

    New York, N.Y.

    Another BytE

    Flagstaff, Ariz.

    Asian Export

    Boston, Mass.

    A Shapiro & Sons

    North Adams, Mass.

    Asset Management Consultants inc.

    Austin, Texas

    Asset Recovery

    St. Paul, Minn.

    AT & T Materials Reclamation Center

    West Chicago, Ill.

    Aurora Electronics Inc.

    Irvine, Calif.

    Automation Resource Information Center (EIPP)

    Arlington, Va.

    B & D Electronics Salvage

    San Jose, Calif.

    Back Thru The Future Micro Computers Inc.

    Norcross, Ga.

    Baker Street Resources

    Atlanta, Ga.

    Bayview Computer Recycling Center

    San Francisco, Calif.

    Bloominton Lakeville Appliance

    Lakeville, Minn.


    Beloit, Wisc.

    Boston Computer Exchange

    Boston, Mass.

    Capital PC Users

    Rockville, Md.

    CEC Enterprises

    North Chelmsford, Mass.


    San Diego, Calif.

    Chero Resources LLC

    Ne York, N.Y.

    Children’s Choice Inc.

    Staunton, Va.

    City Industries Inc.

    Dallas, Texas


    Houston, Texas

    Colt Refining Inc.

    East Haven, Conn.

    Community Resource Center

    Cincinnati, Ohio

    Compaq Factory Outlet

    Houston, Texas

    Complex Metals

    Houston, Texas


    Columbus, Ohio


    Belmont, Mich.

    Computer Depot

    Columbia, Mo.

    Computer Drive Connection

    Banks, Ore.

    Computer Equipment Resources

    Carnation, Wash.


    Computer Exchange USA

    Kirkland, Wash.


    Computer Exchange

    Williston, Vt.

    Computers for Africa Project

    New York, N.Y.

    Computer Place

    London, Ky.

    Computers Plus

    South Burlington, Vt.

    Computer Reclamation Inc.

    Silver Spring, Md.

    Computer Recyclers

    Elmhurst, Ill.

    Computer Recyclers

    St. Louis Park, Minn.

    Computer Recycling

    Rancocas, N.J.

    Computer Recycling Center

    Santa Clara, Calif.

    Computer Recycling Center

    Carnegie Mellon University

    Pittsburgh, Pa.

    Computer Recycling Consortium

    Cleveland, Ohio

    Computer Recycling for Education and Community Enhancement

    San Antonio, Texas

    Computer Recycling & Refining

    Branford, Conn.

    Computer Recycling Solutions

    Berwyn, Ill.

    Computer Renaissance

    Schaumburg, Ill.

    Computer Renaissance

    Eden Prairie, Minn.

    Computer Renaissance

    Alexandria, Va.

    Computer Re-Use Network (CoRN)

    Hollywood, S.C.

    Computer Reuse and Recycling

    Austin, Texas

    Computer Services Inc.

    Philadelphia, Pa.

    Computer Solutions and Electronics

    Raymond, N.H.

    Conigliaro Industries

    Framingham, Mass.

    Conway Metals

    Whitman, Mass.


    San Antonio, Texas

    CRT Recycling Inc.


    CTBI Co.

    San Antonio, Texas

    D & B Precious Metals

    Chicago, Ill.

    Dale Wein Communications

    Cleveland, Ohio

    Dallas Computer Literacy Program

    Dallas, Texas

    Dayton Microcomputer Association

    Dayton, Ohio

    Dell Factory Outlet

    Round Rock, Texas

    Dexis Corp.

    Eden Prairie, Minn.

    Digital Computer Asset Recovery Service

    Shrewsbury, Mass.


    Hagerstown, Md.


    Newfields, N.H.

    Dove Data Products

    Florence, S.C.

    DRAGnet-RE PC

    Minneapolis, Minn.

    Drapper/Lennon Inc.

    Concord, N.H.

    Earth protection Services Inc.

    Nashville, Tenn.


    Boulder, Colo.

    Ecoplast/Western Gold Thermoplastics

    Los Angeles, Calif.

    Ecosource Corp.

    Chino, Calif.


    Greensboro, N.C.

    ECS Dallas

    Dallas, Texas

    ECS Refining

    Santa Clara, Calif.


    Manchester, N.H.


    Peacedale, R.I.

    Electrochemicals Inc.

    Maple Plain, Minn.

    ElectroniCycle Inc.

    Spencer, Mass.

    Electronic Materials and Recovery

    Phoenix, Ariz.

    Electronic Recovery Specialists

    Chicago, Ill.

    Electronic Recovery Inc.

    Minneapolis, Minn.

    Electronic Orphanage

    Bow, N.H.

    Electronic Recovery Inc.

    Maple Plain, Minn.

    Electronic Resource Recovery

    Newburgh, N.Y.

    Electronics Processing Association Inc.

    Lowell, Mass.

    Electronic Recovery Specialist Inc.

    Niles, Ill.

    Electronics Recyclers

    Shrewsbury, Mass.


    Rogers, Minn.

    EnviroCycle Inc.

    High Point, N.C.

    EnviroCycle Inc.

    Hallstead, Pa.

    EnviroLight and Disposal Inc.

    Tampa, Fla.

    Equipment Recycling Services

    Roseville, Calif.


    Equipment Serviceds

    Bethlehem. Pa.

    Farmstead Asset Management Services LLC

    Piscataway, N.J.

    Fox Electronics Inc.

    San Jose, Calif.

    Fox Integrated Technologies Inc.

    San Jose, Calif.

    Franklin Smelting & Refining

    Philadelphia, Pa.

    Free Bytes NP Inc.

    Atlanta, Ga.

    Fry’s Electronics

    San Jose, Calif.

    Gala Strategies

    Brooklyn, N.Y.

    Gianco Ltd.

    West Babylon, N.Y.

    Gifts in Kind International

    Alexandria, Va.

    Global Recycling Technologies Inc.

    Stoughton, Mass.

    Gold Refiners NW

    Mercer Island, Wash.


    Goldsmith Group

    Indianapolis, Ind.


    Worcester, Mass.

    Goodwill Computer Recycling Center

    Pittsburgh, Pa.

    Goodwill Industries of St. Paul

    St. Paul, Minn.

    Gopher Smelting and Refining Co.

    Eagan, Minn.

    Great Lakes Electronic Recycling

    Detroit, Mich.

    Green Disk Software Recycling

    Preston, Wash.

    (Computer Disks/Magnetic Media)

    Green Guardian

    Tempe, Ariz.

    Guaranteed Plastics Inc.

    Gloucester, N.J.

    Hallmark Refining Group

    Mt. Vernon, Wash.


    Hamos, USA/LAA Ltd.

    Philadelphia, Pa.

    Hamos USA

    Asheville, N.C.

    Handy and Harman

    Yorba Linda, Calif.


    Handy & Harmon Refining Group Inc.

    South Windsor, Conn.

    Handy & Harmon Refining Group Inc.

    Lincoln, R.I.

    Hess Technologies

    Sayerville, N.J.


    Santa Clara, Calif.

    Hewlett-Packard/Alternate Sourcing Group

    Roseville, Calif.


    San Francisco, Calif.

    HOBI International Inc.

    West Chicago, Ill.

    HOBI International Inc.

    Dallas, Texas

    Homer Treloar

    Renton, Wash.


    Houston Area League of PC Users

    Houston, Texas

    H & R Scrap Metals Inc.

    Milwaukee, Wisc.

    Hudson Valley Materials Exchange

    New Paltz, N.Y.

    Huron County Solid Waste Facility

    Willard, Ohio

    ICC Net

    Grand Junction, Colo.

    ICS Plastics Inc.

    Amherst, N.Y.

    Industrial Materials Exchange Service

    Springfield, Ill.

    Industrial Recycling Services Inc.

    Flanders, N.J.

    Inter Recycling Inc.

    Conroe, Texas

    Innovative Recycling Corp.

    Albuquerque, N.M.


    Alexandria, Va.

    Japan Technical Information Center

    Arlington, Va.

    Jericho Road/Cooperative Computer Ministry

    Memphis, Tenn.

    Joy Recovery

    Aurora, Ill.

    Kaska Corp. Inc.

    East Brunswick, N.J.

    La Casa de Don Pedro Inc.

    Newark, N.J.

    Lakewood Electric Co.

    Howell, N.J.

    L & M Technical Recycling Co.

    Akron, Ohio


    Philadelphia, Pa.

    Long Island Arts Council at Freeport

    Freeport, N.Y.

    Long Island City Bus. Dev. Corp (INWRAP)

    Long Island City, N.Y.

    Louis J. Horman Metals

    Cincinnati, Ohio

    MARC5R Processors Inc.

    Lithonia, Ga.

    Maine Scrap Metals Inc.

    Des Plaines, Ill.

    Marin Computer Resource Center

    San Rafael, Calif.

    Martin Metals Inc.

    Los Angeles, Calif.


    Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection

    Boston, mass.

    Materials Processing Corp.

    Eagan, Minn.

    Max Phillips and Son Inc.

    Eau Claire, Wisc.

    MBA Polymers

    Berkeley, Calif.

    Mercury Refining Co.

    Albany, N.Y.

    Metaltech Laboratories

    Laconia, N.H.

    Metech International Inc.

    Gilroy, Calif.

    Metech International Inc.

    Mapleville, R.I.

    Metals Reclamation Services

    San Jose, Calif.

    Micro Metallics Corp.

    San Jose, Calif.

    Mid City Scrap Iron

    Westport, Mass.

    Midwest Compute Exchange

    Falcon Heights, Minn.

    Mindsgare Collaborative

    Brighton, Mass.

    Minnesota Technical Assistance Program

    Minneapolis, Minn.

    MKR Data Resources

    Naushua, N.H.

    Motor City Computer

    Pontiac, Mish.

    Music Computer Recycling Program

    Lorain, Ohio

    Nacomex USA Inc.

    Tivoli, N.Y.

    National Computer

    Witchita, Kan.

    National IC Recovery

    St. Petersburg, Fla.

    National Surplus Exchange Program

    Norwood, Mo.

    Nesar Systems

    Darlington, Pa.

    NETI Initiative

    Sherman Oaks, Calif.

    Newtech Recycling Inc.

    Bridgewater, N.J.

    Newtech Recycling Inc.

    Rahway, N.J.

    Newteen Recycling Inc.

    Roselle, N.J.

    New Yrok MacUsers Group

    New York, New York


    San Clemete, Calif.

    Nonprofit Computer Connection

    Boston, Mass.

    Non-Profit Computing Inc.

    New York, New York

    Noranda Mettalurgy

    Toronto, Ontario

    Noranda Inc.

    E. Providence, R.I.

    North America Micro Corp.

    Denmark, Wisc.

    North Coast Computer Recycling

    Euclid, Ohio

    Northern Telecom Material Reclamation

    Durham, N.C.

    Northwest Micro

    Beaverton, Ore.

    Oak Ridge National Recycle Center (TORNRC)

    Oak Ridge, Tenn.

    Oliver Trading Inc.

    Lexington, S.C.

    Oxford Metals Inc.

    Chicago, Ill.

    Oakland Technology Exchange

    Oakland, Calif.

    Oregon Public Networking

    Eugene, Ore.

    Oxford Metals Inc.

    Chicago, Ill

    Pacific Iron & Metal

    Seattle, Wash.


    Pacific Northwest Recycle

    Seattle, Wash.


    Paterson Education Fund

    Paterson, N.J.

    Performance Reclamation

    Tipp City, Ohio

    Peripheral Manufacturing Inc.

    Denver, Colo.

    (Computer Disks/Magnetic Media)


    Costa Mesa, Calif.

    Philadelphia Area Computer Society

    Philadelphia, Pa.

    Philip Environmental (Services?)

    Pittsburgh, Pa.

    Philip Services

    Pittsburgh, Pa.

    PHL International Corp.

    Sturtevant, Wisc.

    Practical Computer Inc.

    Springfield, Va.

    Proactive Environmental R&D

    Marietta, Ga.

    Proactive Environmental R & D Inc.

    Houston, Texas

    Product Takeback Services

    Bedford, Mass.

    Public Service Electric & Gas Co.

    Gibbstown, N.J.

    Q Technology

    Woodinville, Wash.

    (Computer Disks/Magnetic Media)

    Quantum Resource Recovery

    Beaverton, Ore.

    R2 Reuse Centers Inc.

    Countryside, Ill.

    Rentex Inc.

    Boston, Mass.


    Tukwila, Wash.



    Bloomington, Minn.

    Recycle North

    Burlington, Vt.


    Rio Nido, Calif

    ReCycle North

    Burlington, Vt.

    Miami, Fla.

    Resources for Environmental Management

    Acton, Mass.

    R. Fraiser U.S. Inc.

    Salem, Va.

    R. Frazier U.S. Inc.

    Austin, Texas

    Resource Concepts Inc.

    Carrollton, Texas

    Resource Concepts Enviro Inc.

    Dallas, Texas

    Resource Solutions Corp.

    Madison, Wisc.


    Winnipeg, Manitoba

    ReUsed Goods

    Freport, N.Y.

    ReUse Industries

    Albany, Ohio

    Ribbon Recyclers

    Williston, Vt.

    Riverside Salvage and Metal Co.

    Seattle, Wash.


    Robin Hood Foundation

    New York, New York

    Rochester Computer Recycling & Recovery

    Rochester, N.Y.

    Rockaway Recycling

    Rockaway, N.J.

    RST Computer Services

    Hudson, N.H.

    RST Reclaiming Co. Inc.

    Lowell, Mass.

    Ruby Computer Recovery

    Colton, Calif.

    Rumasian Technologies Inc.

    Kenilworth, N.J.

    Rustec Inc.

    Camden, N.J.

    Second Chance Program

    Fairfax, Va.

    Secure Environmental Electronic Recycling

    Tampa, Fla.

    SGS Computer Corp.

    Cleveland, Ohio

    Scientific Recycling

    Holmen, Wisc.


    University Park, Pa.

    Seattle Computer Exchange

    Bellevue, Wash.


    Severson Scrap Metals Inc.

    Madison, Wisc.

    Silicon Salvage

    Anaheim, Calif.

    The Silver Group

    Belvidere, Ill.

    SIPI Metals Corp.

    Chicago, Ill.

    Southeastern Computer Recycling Corp.

    Milledgeville, Ga.

    Southwest Public Recycling Association

    Tuscon, Ariz.

    Space Fitters Inc.

    South Windsor, Conn.

    Spring Lake Equipment

    Eden Prairie, Minn.

    Stateline Recycling Inc.

    Jamesville, Wisc.

    STRUT (Student Recycling Used Technology)

    Hillsboro, Ore.

    Surplus Exchange

    Kansas City, Mo.

    Tacoma Metals Inc.

    Tacoma, Wash.


    Talco Plastics

    Whittier, Calif.

    Target Development

    Westport, Mass.

    Techneglas Inc.

    Columbus, Ohio

    Tecneglas Inc.

    Pittston, Pa.

    Technology Investment Recovery Inc.

    New York, N.Y.

    Technology Recycling Inc.

    Palm Bay, Fla.



    Sag Harbor, N.Y.


    Westhampton Beach, N.Y.

    Teledyne Brown Engineering

    Oak Ridge, Tenn.

    Texas Metal Recyclers

    Houston, Texas

    Texas Recycling & Refining Inc.

    Houston, Texas

    Tombarello Recycling

    Lawrence, Mass.

    Total Reclaim Inc.

    Seattle, Wash.

    TradeUps Inc.

    Atlanta, Ga.

    TRI Recycling Inc.

    Austin, Texas

    Tryonics Inc.

    Hampton, N.H.

    U.S. Mirco Corp.

    Smyrna, Ga.

    United Datatech

    San Jose, Calif.

    United Recycling Industries Inc.

    Franklin Park, Ill.

    United Recycling Industries Inc.

    Franklin Park, Ill

    Universal Integrated Circuits Inc.

    Carol Stream, Ill.

    University of Massachusetts Intermediate Processing Facility

    Amherst, Mass.

    USA Flex

    Bloomingdale, Ill.


    Round Rock, Texas Vermont Retroworks

    Middlebury, Vt.

    Vetco Electronics

    Bellevue, Wash.


    Video Display Corp.

    Stone Mountain, Ga.

    Vision Computer Remarketers

    Woburn, Mass.

    VP Electronics Inc.

    San Jose, Calif.

    Wade Environmental Industries

    Atco, N.J.

    Warner Computer Recycling

    Duluth, Ga.

    Waste Management

    Amsterdam, N.Y.

    Waste Not Recycling

    Herndon, Va.

    WA Technology

    Salem, N.H.

    Waste Management of Arizona, Asset Recovery Group

    Phoenix, Ariz.

    Westech Recyclers

    Phoenix, Ariz.


    West Pacific Industries

    Commerce, Calif.

    West Pacific Industries

    Houston, Texas

    Wilsonart International

    Temple, Texas

    Windfield Alloy

    Lawrence, Mass.

    Women’s Environment and Development Organization (WEDO)

    New York, N.Y.

    Wyse’s Technology

    San Jose, Calif.


    Atlanta, Ga.

    Zeos-Division of Micron

    St. Paul, Minn.